The aim of this work is to cover titanium plates with piezoactive barium titanate layers. In order to achieve this of combination of titanium conversion methods and solvo-thermal sol-gel reactions have been used. Crystalline submicrometer sized barium titanate particles and fibres have been produced at low temperatures and attached to titanium surfaces. Methods of non-classical crystallisation have been shown to grow highly-oriented crystals from nanoparticular building blocks (STU 16, BAH 14).
Our coatings were characterized in therms of their crystallinity and their alignment. They were shown to crystalize in the non-axially symmetric piezoelectric phase as intended.
The piezoelectric effect plays a significant role in many physiological phenomena in biomaterials (RAJ 16). Presently, the attention of many researchers is directed to the piezoelectrical bioceramic barium titanate (BT). Barium titanate is well known as an electro-active ceramic and has the capability to stimulate bone growth and bone remodeling (RIB 15). Moreover, in-vivo experiments have shown its good biocompatibility (Tan 16). Bone growth requires an electrical stimulus, as summarized in Wolff’s law (RIB 15). As bone is a piezo material necessary electrical signals are produced if the bone is subjected to stress.This can be also achieved, if the crystals of BT exist in the necessary non-centrosymmetric unit cell and if these crystals are positioned along their piezoelectric axis.
Titanium alloys have been used in implant technology for a long time, they are prefered both for their superior biological properties as well as for their mechanical characteristics with regards to the bone skeleton. In addition, several surface modifications have been established in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, or their surface roughness in order to improve their osseointegrating properties.